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Static Voltage Regulator

Static Voltage Regulator

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Static Voltage Regulator

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Static Voltage Regulator

Static voltage regulator with IGBT

Static Voltage Regulator is an IGBT-based PWM-based buck-boost voltage stabiliser that achieves tight regulation and rapid correction speed that are not achievable with conventional methods such as servo voltage stabilisers, SCR / triac-based stabilisers, or relay-based stabilisers.

This is a static voltage stabiliser of the SMPS type for mains voltage (AC input and AC output). This is a novel switching topology in which PWM is performed directly in AC-to-AC switching without the introduction of harmonic distortion.

There is no need to convert the AC input to DC and then back to regulated AC output with this design. This streamlines the design, minimises the number of components, and increases efficiency and dependability. The power stage is controlled by an IGBT chopper. The chopping frequency is around 20KHz, ensuring total silence and a clean sine wave output (no waveform distortion).

The control part is based on a dsPIC controller, which enables rapid output correction, which is not achievable with typical relay or servo stabilisers. The circuit has an LCD display that shows all parameters such as input voltage, output voltage, connected load, and so on.

Because the circuit is entirely solid state (there are no mechanical or moving elements), there will be no wear and tear, as there would be with a servo stabiliser or a relay-based stabiliser.

This is especially advantageous in applications requiring extremely fast correction speed, constant output voltage, overload current limiting and short circuit protection, soft start, high voltage and low voltage cut-off, automatic bypass, no wear and tear, long life, and maintenance-free operation, which are not possible with other conventional relay or servo control stabilisers.

Advantages of Static Voltage Regulator (SVR)

Fast Correction Speed: the static voltage stabiliser consists of electronic systems only (not the moving part), which enables output voltages at speeds of up to 20 KHz to be corrected. This feature means that the correction time of the static voltage regulator is as low as 20 to 30 metres.

Low Maintenance: No moveable parts, no wear and tear, and consequently low maintenance are available in SVR.

Short-Circuit Output Protection: The static voltage stabiliser detects high current flux from the entrance in case of output short circuit. In this situation, SVR will switch to IGBT with instantaneous load shifting.

Harmonic Filter: The EMI & RFI filter is a standard IGBT-based static voltage stabiliser, which protects from load side disturbances.

Compact Size, High Reliability: the Buck Boost small size stable is compact in size. Compared with AC Voltage Stabilizer it is lightweight. As the SVR unit uses IGBT, it is more confident because the system is static (no moving parts).

Harmonic Filter: The EMI & RFI filter is a standard IGBT-based static voltage stabiliser, which protects from load side disturbances.

Compact Size, High Reliability: the Buck Boost small size stable is compact in size. Compared with AC Voltage Stabilizer it is lightweight. As the SVR unit uses IGBT, it is more confident because the system is static (no moving parts).

FAQs

Static voltage stabilizer or static voltage regulator, but without moving part, is similar to servo voltage stabilizer. In Servo stabilizer correction in the output voltage it takes time to correct the voltage using a moving tap by servo engine. However, there is no moving part in the static voltage regulator. The voltage correction is obtained by means of electronic circuits alone and is therefore called static. Static voltage controllers are essentially IGBT based on SMPS. Static Voltage Stabilizer is a new PWM-based voltage stabilizer (Pulse Width Modulation technic). The benefits of other rapid regulation of the static voltage regulator are that it can regulate the output waveform without distortion.

As mentioned above, IGBT is used as power switches before Static voltage stabilizer. By converting the input DC voltage to the inverter in normal PWM method. The input DC voltage is achieved through AC conversion to DC, meaning by double conversion. However, there are no requirements for the double conversion of static voltage regulators where PWM takes place directly in the AC-to-AC system and without harmonic distortions. Since the circuit is completely electronic (not moving parts) or static, no wear or tear of the part will occur as with a servo stabilizer. Static tension regulators can be up to 500 times faster in voltage correction speed than the servo stabilizer. Static stabilizer capacities are all of the same operating principle and are only PCB board different at different rates of the Static voltage regulator. The servo voltage stabilizer is compact in size and far lighter in weight.

Voltage regulators come in a variety of configurations.

Voltage regulators are classified according to a variety of factors, including their applications, operating voltages, and power conversion mechanisms.

The two categories are as follows:

  1. Regulators of linear voltage
  2. Voltage regulators with switching capability

1. Regulators of linear voltage

Linear voltage regulators operate on the voltage divider principle to convert the input voltage to the desired output voltage. They employ a feedback loop that automatically adjusts the resistance in the system in response to changes in the load impedance and input voltage, all in order to maintain a constant output voltage.

Typical linear voltage regulator implementations employ FETs as one side of a voltage divider, with a feedback loop connected to the transistor's gate, driving it as required to ensure output voltage consistency.

While using transistors as resistors simplifies the design and implementation of linear regulators, it contributes significantly to the regulators' inefficiency. This is because the transistors convert excess electrical energy (the voltage difference between the input and output voltages) to heat, resulting in power loss due to transistor heating.

When the voltage at the input or the load current at the output is excessive, the regulators may generate excessive heat, which may result in their failure. To mitigate this, designers typically employ heat sinks whose dimensions are determined by the amount of current (power) drawn by the regulator.

Another point worth discussing with linear regulators is the requirement for the input voltage to be greater than the output voltage by a minimum value called the drop-out voltage. This voltage (typically around 2 v) varies between regulators and can be a significant source of concern for designers working on low power applications due to power loss. To overcome this, use a type of linear voltage regulator called an LDO (low-dropout) regulator, which is designed to operate with a difference of as little as 100 mV between the input and output voltages.

The 78xx (e.g., L7805(5V), L7809(9V)) series of voltage regulators are popular examples of linear voltage regulators.

The LM7805 linear voltage regulator's advantages and disadvantages

Pros

Among the advantages of linear voltage regulators are the following:

  1. Ease of design and implementation
  2. Produces less EMI and noise
  3. Reaction time is quick in response to changes in load current or input voltage conditions.
  4. Low output ripple voltage

Cons

Among the disadvantages of linear voltage regulators are the following:

  1. Inefficient because a significant amount of electrical energy is lost as heat.
  2. Due to the requirement for a drop-out voltage, they are unsuitable for low-power applications.
  3. Take up more space on printed circuit boards as a result of their heat sink requirements
  4. Inefficient because a significant amount of electrical energy is lost as heat
  5. Their requirement for a drop-out voltage makes them unsuitable for low-power applications.
  6. Take up more space on printed circuit boards as a result of their heat sink requirements

2. Voltage regulators with switching capability

While switching voltage regulators have a more complex design and require additional companion components to function, they are extremely efficient regulators that are used in situations where power loss, as with linear regulators, cannot be tolerated.

In switching voltage regulators, the voltage regulation mechanism involves rapidly switching an element in series with an energy storage component (capacitor or inductor) to interrupt the flow of current and transform the voltage between two values. How this is accomplished is determined by the control signal generated by a feedback mechanism such as the one used in linear regulators.

In contrast to linear voltage regulators, the switching element is either fully conducting or completely switched off. It generates no heat and enables the regulator to operate at a higher efficiency than linear regulators

A switching voltage regulator's fundamental implementation makes use of a "pass transistor" operating in either its cutoff or saturated state as the switching element. When the pass transistor is in the cutoff state, no current flows through it and thus no power is dissipated; however, when it is in the saturated state, a negligible voltage drop appears across it, accompanied by the dissipation of a small amount of power and maximum current being forwarded to the load. Due to the switching action and the energy saved during the cutoff state, a switched regulator's efficiency is typically greater than 70%.

Due to the switching and PWM-based control, switching voltage regulators can operate in a variety of modes and are available in a variety of configurations, including:

  1. Buck Regulators of switching
  2. Regulators of boost switching
  3. Regulators with Buck/Boost Switching

1. Voltage regulators with buck switching

Buck switching regulators, also known as step-down regulators, convert a high input voltage to a lower output voltage. This operation is similar to that of linear regulators, except that buck regulators are more efficient. Below is an illustration of the component arrangement in buck regulators.

2. Voltage regulators with boost switching capability

Boost switching regulators, also known as step-up regulators, are capable of converting low input voltages to a higher output voltage. Their configuration is one of the primary distinctions between linear and switching regulators, as linear voltage regulators experience no regulation if the voltage at their input is greater than the voltage required at their output. Below is a circuit diagram demonstrating boost switching voltage regulators.

3. Voltage regulator with buck/boost switching capability

A buck/boost regulator combines the features of the two previous regulators. It can produce a constant output voltage regardless of the difference between the input and output voltages (+ or -). They are extremely useful in battery applications where the input voltage, which may initially be greater than the output voltage, gradually decreases to a level below the output voltage. The following circuit illustrates a buck/boost switching regulator:

Advantages and disadvantages

Cons

As efficient and perfect as switching voltage regulators appear to be, they do have some drawbacks, including the following:

  1. Difficult design
  2. Requires a greater number of additional components
  3. Exorbitant
  4. High EMI and noise generation rates that, if not properly managed, could jeopardise product certification
  5. Significant ripple in the output voltage
  6. Longer time required to recover from transients when compared to linear regulators
  7. Pros

    Depending on the application, switching regulators' advantages may outweigh their disadvantages. Several advantages include the following:

    1. Compact size
    2. Superior efficacy
    3. They are capable of producing an output voltage greater or less than the input voltage.
    4. Designed for low-power applications
    5. Compact size
    6. Superior efficacy
    7. They are capable of producing an output voltage greater or less than the input voltage.
    8. Designed for low-power applications

Following are the features of Static Voltage Regulator

  1. Rapid response.
  2. Trips for low voltage / high voltage / excessive current.
  3. There is an indicator accessible to indicate a healthy power output.
  4. Automatic / manual operation is possible via a selector switch on the front door.
  5. There is no distortion of the waveform.
  6. Unusual enclosure design incorporates caster wheels for panel transportation.
  7. LCD display with a resolution of 20 × 4 characters for data monitoring.
  8. The keypad is used to configure the parameters.
  9. The controller allows for manual input/output voltage setting.
  10. For regulated application, a manual output on the load switch is provided.

Any electrical or electronic device that regulates the voltage of a power source within acceptable limits is referred to as a voltage regulator. The voltage regulator is required to maintain voltages within the specified range that the electrical equipment that uses that voltage can tolerate. This type of device is widely used in all types of motor vehicles to match the generator's output voltage to the electrical load and the battery charging requirements. Voltage regulators are also used in electronic equipment where large voltage fluctuations would be detrimental.

Voltage regulators in automobiles rapidly switch between three circuit states via a spring-loaded, double-pole switch. At low speeds, some of the generator's current is used to boost the magnetic field of the generator, thereby increasing the voltage output. At higher speeds, resistance is introduced into the generator-field circuit to moderate the generator's voltage and current. At higher speeds, the circuit is switched off, resulting in a decrease in the magnetic field. Typically, the regulator switches between 50 and 200 times per second.

Electronic voltage regulators smooth out variations in the flow of current by utilising solid-state semiconductor devices. In the majority of cases, they operate as variable resistances; that is, resistance decreases with increasing electrical load and increases with decreasing load.

Voltage regulators serve the same purpose in large-scale power distribution systems as they do in automobiles and other machines; they minimise voltage fluctuations to protect the equipment that uses electricity. Regulators are located in either substations or on feeder lines in power distribution systems. There are two types of regulators: step regulators, which regulate the current supply via switches, and induction regulators, which utilise an induction motor to supply a secondary, continuously adjusted voltage to compensate for current variations in the feeder line.

Maintenance is minimal. With a voltage regulator, maintenance is minimal. Once installed, you can leave your devices plugged into the ports and check the indicators periodically. As long as it is properly installed, it requires little attention.

Correction of voltage. A regulator's primary benefit is that it corrects the voltage on your devices. The device can optimise the amount of electricity exposed to your device by taking the input voltage and passing it through resistors. This safeguards your electronics and improves their performance.

Protection against surges. The majority of voltage regulators also function as surge protectors, safeguarding your devices in the event of a power surge. As long as you check the device's rating, you can ensure that it will not be harmed by excessive electricity.

Numerous options for alternating current and direct current devices. Voltage regulators are available for both alternating current and direct current devices. While the majority of DC models require manual installation, AC models include plug-ins for connecting your technology.

Safeguard your devices. Voltage regulators are primarily used to protect sensitive electronics from damage caused by under- or over-voltage, overheating, and surges. It optimises the flow of information for all types of technology without requiring manual intervention.

When the power supply company supplies less than normal voltage, a voltage stabiliser boosts the voltage at the output connected to the load. This can be accomplished through the use of a transformer contained within the stabiliser.

Voltage regulators have the following limitations.

One of the primary drawbacks of voltage regulators is their inefficiency, which occurs as a result of the dissipation of large current in some applications.

This IC's voltage drop is comparable to that of a resistor. For instance, if the voltage regulator's input is 5V and the output is 3V, the voltage drop between the two terminals is 2V.

The regulator's efficiency can be limited to 3V or 5V, allowing it to be used with smaller Vin/Vout differentials.

It is critical to consider the expected power dissipation of a regulator in any application, because when the input voltages are high, the power dissipation will be high, which can damage various components due to overheating.

Another limitation is that, in comparison to switching types, they are only capable of buck conversion, as these regulators will provide both buck and conversion.

While switching type regulators are extremely efficient, they do have some disadvantages, including a lower cost per watt than linear type regulators, a greater degree of complexity, a larger physical size, and the potential to generate more noise if their external components are not carefully chosen.

A significant but perplexing question is raised here: what is the precise distinction(s) between Stabilizer and Regulator? Well.. Both function in the same way, which is to stabilise the voltage, but the primary distinction between a voltage stabiliser and a voltage regulator is as follows:

Voltage Stabilizer: A voltage stabiliser is a device or circuit that is designed to provide a constant voltage to the output regardless of the incoming voltage.

Voltage Regulator: A voltage regulator is a device or circuit that is designed to maintain a constant voltage at the output without affecting the load current.

Symptoms of a faulty voltage regulator include the following:

  1. Extremely high voltage output
  2. Low output voltage, and occasionally no output voltage
  3. Dimming or flickering lights
  4. High-beam headlamp bulbs that are defective
  5. The engine is behaving erratically (weak or flickering ignition system)
  6. Adding water to the battery on a regular basis
  7. Corrosion is accumulating around the battery terminals and on the top.
  8. Batteries that have died
  9. On the dashboard, an indicator for the battery or check engine light is illuminated.

Bear in mind that several of these symptoms could be caused by corroded or loose charging system connections.

As a result, ensure that you check for the following:

  • battery connections that are clean and secure
  • excellent battery cables
  • Ensure that the engine and chassis ground connections and wires are in good condition.
  • battery that is clean and in good working order (have it tested, if necessary)
  • Drive or serpentine belts should be in good condition and properly tensioned.
  • These preliminary checks will assist you in identifying and resolving the most common charging system issues.

    A voltage regulator ensures that an automobile's electrical systems receive an even supply of power, including the headlights, dashboard components, and stereo. When components fail or begin to exhibit signs of failure, it can have far-reaching consequences for the automobile's viability. You may notice dimming headlights, fluctuating engine performance, or even a dead battery. As soon as you notice the symptoms, have the vehicle inspected thoroughly to avoid being stranded on the side of the road.

    Lights that dim or pulse

    A damaged or failed voltage regulator can significantly reduce the alternator's ability to cycle the battery's power. This may result in the vehicle's external systems dimming or pulsating, such as the headlights and dashboard elements. Additionally, the "check engine" or "battery" light on the dashboard may illuminate when the vehicle's on-board computer detects the initial failure.

    Batteries that have died

    A burned-out voltage regulator reduces the capacity of the vehicle battery to charge or completely disables it. You'll quickly discover that the vehicle is unable to start as a result of a dead battery. The vehicle will start if the battery is recharged, although the faulty voltage regulator will cause the battery to rapidly lose power. Once the battery has been recharged or the car has been jump-started, the vehicle should be immediately taken to a mechanic to have the voltage regulator replaced.

    Engine Performance That Is Unpredictable

    Certain aftermarket voltage regulators have encountered compatibility issues with factory-built systems. Engine stalling, sputtering, and intermittent acceleration will occur when the voltage regulator of the vehicle is unable to handle the power generated by the vehicle's stock (and faster-moving) alternator. As a result of being overworked, the regulator quickly burns out. Examine the aftermarket parts with a certified mechanic or someone with extensive knowledge of the vehicle being modified.

    Static Voltage Regulator